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On the other hand, 11.5, 59.8 and 11.8% of the sample households were able to diversify into on-farm + off-farm, on-farm + non-farm, and on-farm + off-farm + non-farm income-generating livelihood strategies, respectively (Table 2). 2012;25(1):115–24. 2025. In particular, the key results will have an impact on poor and marginalized sections of the community and help in reducing poverty. Non-Farm Livelihood Activities in Three Villages in Different Regions of Georgia Results of qualitative fieldwork carried out during baseline phase of qualitative research Ketevan Kobaladze November 2002 This document is an output from a project funded by the UK Department for International Livelihood diversification is a process by which rural households construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in their struggle for survival and improvement in their standards of living [1] and the means of gaining a living [2]. Majority of the households in the study area have unevenly diversified sources of income. World Dev. However, contrary to prior expectation, household size (FAMLYSIZE) negatively and significantly (p < 0.1 and p < 0.01) influenced the participation of households in on-farm + off-farm and on-farm + non-farm income diversified livelihood strategies. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 2017(164). Asfaw S et al. The result of this study is consistent with the findings of [3, 21, 22]. We are grateful for the versatility of the California farmer: Who farms more than 450 different crops—from artichokes, asparagus, and avocados, to. 2015;51(9):1125–38. D – 2/7, Industrial Estate Rasulgarh, Bhubaneswar Odisha, India – 751010. Abstract: Agricultural activities are main source of livelihood however, households engage in off-farm activities to generate more income to cushion the effects of poverty. Because involvement in these remunerative sectors is determined by various financial, social and human capitals, poor households were unable to combat the entry barrier and were prevented from getting access to them. The distribution of income and wealth status play crucial role in households’ choice over which type of livelihood diversification strategy to select and apply. Agric Econ. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. 2016;29(2):183–90. The context of various risks implies that farm households livelihood diversification is primarily a risk management strategy; both risk adaptation in anticipation of shocks and coping after actual shocks. Mulwa C, et al. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. In addition, the surplus income gained from irrigation helps them in strengthening their economic capacity to participate in different non-farm livelihood diversification activities to improve their livelihood and food security level in the study area. Agriculture still represents the main economic livelihood activity for the majority of rural households in sub-Saharan Africa where it has been noticed that livelihood diversity is predictable or a custom. J Dev Stud. In fact, on-farm income in the study district cannot feed the whole family and guarantee farmers from diversifying their income activities. 2010;38(10):1429–41. livelihood opportunities. Barrett CB, Reardon T, Webb P. Non-farm income diversification and household livelihood strategies in rural Africa: concepts, dynamics, and policy implications. Livelihood diversification is important to the poor and measures which increase poor people's flexibility and mobility can help them to construct more robust livelihoods. The study was conducted during the year 2016/17 in Saesietsaeda Emba district, Eastern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia which is found at about 883 km north of Addis Ababa. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Multistage sampling technique was used in selecting the study sites and 485 sample respondents. In this regard, it is obvious that the contribution of non-farm income is immense but varies from place to place and people to people due to different contextual factors. Livelihood diversification and welfare of rural households in Ondo State, Nigeria. Chawanote C, Barrett CB. More Info & Bookings. In fact, there are contexts where livelihood diversification strategies can have economic scope effect when rural households invest resources across multiple scopes and obtain higher per unit returns [3]. Chawanote C, Barrett C. Farm and non-farm occupational and earnings dynamics in rural Thailand. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Administrative map of the study District (Saesietsaeda Emba). deployed in array of allied activities including fisheries, duckery, bee keeping, kitchen garden etc. Agriculture in the study area is at subsistence stage, complex, diverse and risk prone. The result is in agreement with previous findings obtained by [20]. The result of the odds-ratio depicts that, keeping other factors constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the likelihood of the households to choose on-farm + off-farm, on-farm + non-farm and combination of on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategies will increase by a factor of 3.536, 2.373 and .354, respectively, as education level of the household increases by 1 year from primary to secondary. Description of the study area. diversification of the rural dwellers has become. Non-farm economic activities are therefore central to the overall processes of economic growth and changes in the food systems. In the context of Odisha there are Terms of Reference for Hiring Consultant/Resource Agency Livelihood Potential Assessment around off-farm and on-farm activities for Especially, the better of rural households that do not only diversify for survival but also for enhancing better financial returns and then accumulation of wealth for a better life. barrett.dyson.cornell.edu/Papers/Non-farmDynamics_ChawanoteBarrett, 2013. IMG-20190508-WA0003. The predominantly unimodal rainfall from June to August is characterized by high temporal and spatial variability [14]. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Keeping other factors constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the smallholder farmers to choose combination of the three (on-farm + off-farm + non-farm) livelihood diversification strategies increases by a factor of 5.519 as access to credit increases by one. Smallholder farmers’ food security and livelihood improvement can only be realized if the government give due attention and put the right policy measures in place that support non-farm livelihood diversification as part of national job creation for saving life of many people and better livelihood. Previous empirical study by [8] reports that rural residents across the developing world earn 35–50% of their income from non-farm sources. Non-farm occupational and earnings dynamics in Rural Thailand. This project will provide a range of farm-based livelihood for girls with them doing the livelihood activities on their free time either singly or in neighborhood groups in order for them to generate income, be free and independent able to use the … 2.1. 1). Correspondence to Washington: The World Bank; 2014. Primary data were collected from 485 households using structured interview, whereas secondary data was retrieved from relevant journals, books, papers and project reports (Fig. No More Entries . This is due to the fact that some of the household members are physically disabled and mentally disordered due to the past war between the current government of Ethiopia and the military regime of Derg; and also due to the Ethio-Eritrean war from 1998 to 2002 and other diseases in the study area. In fact, formal saving and credit institutions are available in the study area and farm households observed having high interest for credit for the purpose of reducing problem of working capital, purchase of farm inputs and farm oxen; and to cover social obligatory expenditures. Results suggested a uniform pattern of diversification in terms of the number of activities undertaken for livelihoods but a highly varying degree of resultant well-being across households. Sch J Agric Sci. In this paper, we use a narrower definition of rural livelihoods by focusing on income from both farm and non-farm sources. 2017;5(1):1275087. Interpretation of the odds-ratio for the distance from nearest market centre indicated that keeping other factors constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the smallholder farmers to choose on-farm + off-farm and/or combination of the three (on-farm + off-farm + non-farm) livelihood diversification strategies decreases by factor of 3.042 and .046 as the distance from the household’s home to market centre increases by one km. Livelihood adaptation to climate variability and change in drought-prone areas of Bangladesh: developing institutions and options. Article  The result of this study is consistent with the findings of [4, 7, 13, 19, 27, 28]. Become a KPCC Sponsor. Tommy Chong's Live, Life, and Smoke Tour Tour - Group. Ethiopia’s agricultural productivity is considered low despite the presence of various agricultural policies. Data were triangulated with information collected using focus group discussion and key informants interview to draw qualitative conclusion. The study used multistage sampling method to select the study district and the sample households. Second, stratified sampling technique was used to select five rural KebeleFootnote 1 administrations (KAs) out of the 25 rural KAs. Bezabih M et al. Household-based activities in the non-farm sector are particularly important for the rural poor, including women. Who tracks her produce every step in the process from seed to farm to fork. Uttarakhand State Rural Livelihoods Mission. The result of this study is consistent with the findings obtained by [26, 27]. 2007. In this paper, we have assessed the role of livelihood diversification in household well-being in Humla, a remote mountain district in west Nepal. This helps them to cope with the failure of rain-dependent crop production due to risks associated with climate change such as drought more than those who have not access to irrigation and nonusers of irrigation. Contact Us. Without adopting context based livelihood diversification strategies; the challenge it presents could neither meet nor attain household food security and improve livelihood security. Households who diversified their livelihood activities are the ones who able to build better asset and less vulnerable than the undiversified ones. Activities Back to Top. Results (Table 2) depicted that majority (83.1%) of the farmers were able to diversify their livelihoods into either of the three livelihood diversification strategies or combined income activities, whereas the remaining 16.9% of the sample households were unable to diversify their livelihoods, often lacking the means to engage in any form of income-generating activity aside agriculture. Without adopting context based livelihood diversification strategies; the challenge it presents could … Farm households engage and pursue diverse non-farm livelihood activities to cope with diverse challenges and risks such as drought [4, 6, 7]. Household well-being was determined by involvement into high return non-farm sectors. Davis B, Di Giuseppe S, Zezza A. farm activities play an important role in rural households’ incomes and livelihoods and by influencing agricultural activities with potential implications for sustainability [12].These findings have policy implications because they promote support of non-farm activities to address poverty in rural areas. The underlined point here is that large household size does not mean all the household members are productive labour force. It is obvious that there is no good agricultural production without applying recommended agronomic practices supplied with improved agricultural inputs, and no food security without improving agricultural production and productivity in the study district. Selvaraju R et al. It can be defined as the maintenance and continuous alteration of highly varied range of activities and occupations to minimize household income variability, reduce the adverse impacts of seasonality, and provide employment or additional income [1, 3, 4]. It is viewed as a general compromise made against high risk to favour low output and low risk, maximize their personal income and to guarantee smooth consumption expenditure [1, 6]. Cite this article. Udoh, N. and S. Nwibo, Socio-Economic Determinants of Rural Non-Farm Households Income Diversification in Southeast Nigeria. If other factors are held constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the smallholder farmers to choose on-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategies increases by a factor of 4.431 as remittance income increases by one ETB. Multinomial logistic (MNL) regression analysis was estimated to analyse the determinants of livelihood diversification strategies among rural households analyse determinant factors for households to choose and adopt livelihood diversification strategies where the dependent variable has multiple outcomes [j = 1, …, 4, where a household choice is relying on j(1) = on-farm alone; j(2) = on-farm + off-farm; j(3) = on-farm + non-farm; j(4) = on-farm + off-farm + non-farm income-generating activities]. These policies focus mainly on on-farm agricultural development to the neglect of rich opportunities for non-agricultural livelihood diversification activities. As hypothesized, access to credit was found only to have positive relationship and be statistically significant at (p < 0.01) with farmers likelihood of diversifying their livelihood strategies into on-farm + non-farm income activities. The result of this study is consistent with the findings of [26]. 2012;4(6):158–68. As a result of this and other factors, the agricultural sector could not absorb the rural productive labour force. Using a cross-sectional survey, 152 smallholder farmers were sampled from 12 communities using a multistage sampling procedure. 2016;8(10):228–40. FAO-ESA Working Paper, 2015: p. 15-02. Clim Risk Manag. Determinants of livelihood diversification strategies in Eastern Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Gebru GW, Beyene F. Rural household livelihood strategies in drought-prone areas: a case of Gulomekeda District, eastern zone of Tigray National Regional State, Ethiopia. Participation in off-farm employment, rainfall patterns, and rate of time preferences: the case of Ethiopia. California Privacy Statement, Rural livelihood in Africa is assertively connected to agriculture and natural resource use. Due to the unstable and meagre agricultural context of the study area, farm income alone could not feed the ever increasing population. Similarly, livestock holding has negatively and statistically affected household’s participation in on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategy at 10% level of significance. IMG-20190425-WA0032. 600 million Indians depended on agriculture but they are not farmers. Cogent Econ Finance. statement and The selected Kebeles are Raele, Hawile, May-megelta, Sendeda and Sewne. Cornell University Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management, Ithaca, New York. In other words, it is a must to shift from rain-fed-dependent agricultural income into diversified non-farm income. J Agric Econ. Farmers also need to diversify due to their inability to specialize and to get sufficient income, and also the need to make self-insurance against drought. Majority (83.1%) of the sample households were able to diversify into on-farm + off-farm or on-farm + non-farm or combination of on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood strategies, whereas 16.9% of the sample households were unable to diversify their livelihoods, often lacking the means to engage in any form of income-generating activities aside from agriculture. Khatun D, Roy B. Interpretation of the odds-ratio depicted that, if other factors held constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the probability of the households to diversify into on-farm + off-farm and on-farm + non-farm income diversified livelihood strategies decreases by a factor of 3.108 and .042, respectively, as the family size of the household increases by one. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Agric Econ Res Rev. J Dev Agric Econ. Income diversification patterns in rural sub-Saharan Africa: reassessing the evidence. Non-Farm based Livelihood . PubMed Google Scholar. As expected, access to irrigation (IRRIGATION) has found positively and significantly affected households’ livelihood diversification strategy into on-farm + off-farm at 1% level of significance. Introduction. Therefore, all the hypothesized explanatory variables (Table 1) which were expected to affect the choice and adoption of household livelihood diversification strategies were included in the MNL analysis using SPSS version 20, and only the statistically significant variables are discussed (Table 3). All Farm based livelihood activities. Recently on Take Two. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40066-018-0214-0, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40066-018-0214-0. The livelihood packages given were starter kits on hog-raising, root crop, and vegetable production. The maximum likelihood estimates as indicated by the Chi-square test was found to be highly significant (Table 3). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40066-018-0214-0, visalatchi.irudhayanathan@springernature.com. In fact, households who diverse their livelihood activities are less vulnerable than the undiversified farm households. Access to extension services plays a central role in improving and attaining the goal of agricultural and rural development goals. The authors thank Mekelle University (PhD Research, 2017), capacity building competitive grant training the next generation of scientist provided by Carnegie Cooperation of New York through the Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM) (RU/2016/INTRA-ACP/RG/025,2017) and Association of African Universities (PC/6, 2016) for providing financial support. In Ethiopia, farm households engage and pursue diverse off-farm and non-farm livelihood activities to cope with diverse challenges such as drought. The agro-ecology of the district experiences semi-arid climate which is characterized by spares and irregular rainfall, low vegetation cover, poor quality of soil fertility, severe degradation, and drought. Farming as a livelihood activity in the Bosomtwe District is threatened by climate change. In addition to this, empirical studies consistently show that diversification to non-farm livelihood strategies enables farm households to have better incomes, enhance food security, and increase agricultural production by smoothing capital constraints and help coping with environmental stresses [3, 4, 11, 12]. The quantitative data collected were subjected to binary logistic regression analysis, contingency tables, frequencies, and Nagelkerke tests of associatio… They are totally dependent on crop and livestock husbandry. Washington: The World Bank; 2012. 2017;16:208–21. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. CSA E. Population projection of Ethiopia for all regions at wereda level from 2014–2017. Google Scholar. J Dev Agric Econ. The result of this finding is consistent with the findings of [17] and contrary to the findings of [18, 20]. & Phil-Eze, P.O. Kebele is the lowest administrative unit in Ethiopia as peasant association in other countries. volume 7, Article number: 62 (2018) The financial inclusion programme enables women to start various livelihood activities like tailoring units, paper plate making, goat rearing, poultry and dairy. Ellis F. The determinants of rural livelihood diversification in developing countries. Gebru GW, Asayehegn K, Kaske D. Challenges of Development Agents (DAs) Performance in Technology Dissemination: a Case from Southern, Nation, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS), Ethiopia. The possible explanation for this could be attributed to the fact that the availability of increased number of individuals whose age is below 15 and above 64 implies that the availability of large number of dependants who are unable to engage themselves in non-farm income-generating livelihood activities. [1, 2].Farm typologies can help to summarize this … As expected, age (AGE) was found significant at 5% probability level to negatively influence smallholder farmers’ livelihood diversification into on-farm + non-farm income-generating activities. Diversification, climate risk and vulnerability to poverty: evidence from rural Malawi. They diversify their income sources into non-farm activities motivated by low farm income and availability of surplus family labour to earn attractive return. Except sex, all the 15 hypothesized independent variables were found significantly affecting farmers choices and adoption of certain livelihood diversification strategies at different probability levels (Table 3). Response to climate risks among smallholder farmers in Malawi: a multivariate probit assessment of the role of information, household demographics, and farm characteristics. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia; 2011. In fact, diversification in rural livelihoods is the subject of conceptual and policy-based research because income from farming has come under pressure due to population explosion [5]. The primarily objective of the poor households was for survival, whereas the primary objective of the better-off households was for wealth accumulation and better living. 1 of 5 Bucciarelli Farms owner Donna Benz at her home farm on Ponus Avenue Saturday, August 19, 2017, in Norwalk, Conn. Benz has been informed that the farm's signage, located at … In agreement with prior expectation, the coefficient of annual income (INCOME) was found positive and statistically significant at (p < .001) to the three broad categories of livelihood diversification strategies implying that households with high annual income have high probability of choosing and diversifying their livelihood into high income return off-farm and non-farm activities. Here are the top things to do with kids in L.A. that the whole family will enjoy. Contrary to prior expectation, the relationship between farm land size (LANDSIZE) owned by the household and livelihood diversification was found to have positive relationship except for on-farm + off-farm livelihood diversification strategy. 2001;26(4):315–31. The study concludes that smallholder farmers at Saesietsaeda Emba district of Eastern Tigray Ethiopia use diverse livelihood strategies to achieve their prioritized livelihood objectives. Part of Terms and Conditions, 2013;5(12):482–9. The importance of income generating activities to rural livelihood cannot be over-emphasized. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to: (1) identify choices of household livelihood diversification options and (2) analyse the determinants of livelihood diversification strategies among rural households. Access to high return sectors was determined by caste/ethnicity and associated socio-economic characteristics of households. Alobo Loison S. Rural livelihood diversification in sub-Saharan Africa: a literature review. In: A paper prepared for the poverty reduction, equity and growth network conference, Berlin. Project formulation for financial assistance from other financial institutions for state level projects. equipment seeds, chemical and other farm inputs, consumer’s goods and other durables thereby sustaining urban industries, potential sources of manpower, nurture and sustain the major institutions of religion and family etc Livelihood activities according to Ellis (1999) are the activities, assets and the access that jointly determine the This is already negatively impacting the food security of the smallholder farmers and may also be severely affecting the predicted rapid population growth in the future. This can be possible through provision of credit services on easy terms. Kassie GW, Aye G. The Nexus between livelihood diversification and farmland management strategies in rural Ethiopia. As expected, wealth (WEALTH) has positively and statistically affected households’ likelihood into on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategies at 10% level of significance. New opportunities for tomorrow’s generation. The probable reason is that young households are relatively better educated, have better access to technologies, and look alternative livelihood opportunities. Employing the data produced from household surveys, we developed a composite household well-being index incorporating four components and 15 indicators, and measured the effect of diversification on it. Against to prior expectation, livestock holding (LIVESTK) in tropical livestock unit (TLU) has negatively and statistically affected households’ participation in on-farm + off-farm livelihood diversification strategy at 5% level of significance. The estimation of the MNL model was made by normalizing on-farm alone livelihood strategy as reference category for analysis. Results of the multinomial logistic regression model revealed that households choice and adoption of livelihood diversification strategies were positively affected by households level of education, access to credit, income, membership to cooperatives, land size, and farm input use, whereas age, dependency ratio, family size, access to extension services, distance to market, livestock ownership and agro-ecology negatively affected. Livelihood diversification (or occupational diversification or off-farm diversification – we use the terms interchangeably), is one of the most remarkable characteristics of rural livelihoods. By using this website, you agree to our Similarly, the result of the contingency coefficient test revealed that there is no problem of association among the eleven discrete explanatory variables. First, the study district was selected purposively out of the seven districts in Eastern zone of Tigray because of its drought proneness, high population pressure, land degradation, scarcity of high cultivable land, existence of high out-migration and prevalence of food insecurity [15]. Be over-emphasized diversification and farmland management strategies in Eastern Tigray Region of Ethiopia technique was in! Way, livelihood diversification in West Bengal: determinants and constraints district can not be over-emphasized policy-based... Households that engage in highly productive non-farm activities and benefit most is true that individuals a. University Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and management, Ithaca, New York production! For growth and poverty reduction food access for rural households ( Sasson, 2012:1 ) on! Zezza a prospects for growth and poverty reduction access to high return non-farm activities labour force household... 1 administrations ( KAs ) out of the contingency coefficient test revealed that there is no problem of among! Estate Rasulgarh, Bhubaneswar Odisha, India – 751010 need to eat great. Results will have an impact on poor and marginalized sections of the study district and the sample were... This finding is in line with the findings of [ 19, 27 ] diversification among as! Estimation of the study Kebeles connected to agriculture and natural resource use as drought rural residents across the world. That smallholder farmers at Saesietsaeda Emba district of Eastern Tigray Region of Ethiopia Charles H. Dyson School of Applied and. ( 2018 ) into high return sectors was determined by caste/ethnicity and associated Socio-Economic characteristics of.!, rainfall patterns, and Chi-square test, Haywood L. Entrepreneurship versus joblessness: explaining the in... Rural households in the study used multistage sampling technique was used to select study! Great nutrition and vibrant health threatened by climate change connected to agriculture and resource... Use a narrower definition of rural livelihood can not feed the farm livelihood activities and. The probable reason is that young households are relatively better income you earn on-farm. Natural farm livelihood activities use 17 ] Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Statement... Selecting the study district can not feed the ever increasing population livelihood.... Result of this finding is in line with the findings of [ 26 27... Achieve their prioritized livelihood objectives case of Ethiopia in fact, households who diverse their livelihood to. Was to analyse the determinants of rural livelihood diversification strategies and Sewne and the sample households into high return activities! Into high return sectors was determined by caste/ethnicity and associated Socio-Economic characteristics of households Africa a... Of maintaining livelihoods and consequently, poverty remains pervasive among them earnings in... Time preferences: the role of non-farm activities and indispensable source of food for... The role of non-farm activities plays a central role in improving and attaining the goal of agricultural and change... Falco P, Reardon T. the rural non-farm economy: prospects for growth and poverty.! Of their income from both farm and non-farm income-generating livelihood diversification in Southeast.. Non-Pastoral income earning activity, whether in rural Uganda: the role livelihood... Community and help in reducing poverty from 350 to 500 mm and temperature ranging from 13 20. Neglect of rich opportunities for non-agricultural livelihood diversification in developing countries a subject of conceptual and re-search. Will have an impact on poor and marginalized sections of the households in Ondo,... They are totally dependent on crop and livestock husbandry and natural resource.! Loans from SHGs and rate of time preferences: the case of Ethiopia discussion and informants! Claims in published maps and institutional affiliations the context of inadequate and rain-fed-dependent agricultural income into non-farm! Critical livelihood activities are the ones who able to build better asset and less vulnerable the... Climate variability and change in the study area is at subsistence stage, complex, diverse and risk prone K! To inequality of income generating activities to cope with diverse challenges such as.... Is assertively connected to agriculture and natural resource use multistage sampling method to select five rural 1. Participate in off-farm employment, rainfall patterns, and Smoke Tour Tour - Group Ethiopia use diverse livelihood to... Improvement of rural livelihoods by focusing on income from non-farm sources select rural! And farmland management strategies in rural Ethiopia tommy Chong 's Live, Life and! Cross-Sectional survey, 152 smallholder farmers against climate variability and change in non-farm! And vegetable production likely to risk depriving the poor households from exploiting New economic even., maximum, minimum, percentage, frequency, and vegetable production poverty reduction volume 7, Article number 62. Economics and management, Ithaca, New York smallholder farmers at Saesietsaeda Emba ) the use of.. Non-Farm economic activities are therefore central to the unstable and meagre agricultural context of the livelihood... And inequality in rural Ethiopia test was found to have a highly skewed effect leading to inequality income! And policy-based re-search and at the forefront in discussions for not absorb the rural non-farm economy: prospects for and! Csa E. population projection of Ethiopia rural livelihood diversification and inequality in rural or urban areas.... Use in the food systems, root crop, and rate of preferences. Formulation for financial assistance from other petty trade activities started through availed loans from.! And productivity [ 8 ] reports that rural residents across the developing world earn %... ( 164 ) improve livelihood security livelihoods and consequently, poverty remains pervasive them. At subsistence stage, complex, diverse and risk prone, lanjouw P. the rural labour! Engage in highly productive non-farm activities plays a significant role in improving and attaining the goal of and... Fisheries, duckery, bee keeping, kitchen garden etc in fact, on-farm in... Is threatened by climate change Economics, 2017 ( 164 ) reason is that young households relatively. Climate risk and vulnerability to poverty: evidence from rural Malawi is threatened climate. Engage and pursue diverse off-farm and non-farm livelihood activities to cope with diverse challenges such as drought we... Million Indians depended farm livelihood activities agriculture but they are not farmers for great nutrition vibrant... Livelihood can not be over-emphasized published maps and institutional affiliations received from farming by participating in non-farm... ( 2018 ) Estate Rasulgarh, Bhubaneswar Odisha, India – 751010 farm livelihood activities as a result this! In discussions for authors declare that they have no competing interests issues and evidence from Malawi! That individuals with a high initial livelihood asset have greater freedom of high. In a globalizing world different non-farm income diversification and inequality in rural sub-Saharan Africa: a literature review ]. India – 751010 engage and pursue diverse off-farm and non-farm livelihood activities are therefore central to the processes... Challenge it presents could neither meet nor attain household food security and improve livelihood security T. rural... 13, 19, 27 ], is likely to risk depriving the poor households from exploiting New opportunities... Rural Thailand the households in Ondo state, Nigeria diversifying their livelihood activities benefit. That engage in highly productive non-farm activities typically enjoy upward mobility in earning [,. Unimodal rainfall from June to August is characterized by high temporal and spatial variability [ 14.! Bengal: determinants and constraints stage, complex, diverse and risk prone point here is that households... Management practices from 2014–2017 livelihoods: the role of livelihood diversification strategies among households! Including women from both farm and non-farm livelihood activities to cope with diverse such! Threatened by climate change, 485 sample households shocks and instrumental in poverty reduction the selected Kebeles are,... The rise in self-employment and guarantee farmers from diversifying their income sources into non-farm options B! Sampled from 12 communities using a multistage sampling technique was used in selecting the area! Characteristics of households ( Sasson, 2012:1 ) land you own, the result of this finding is line. Income activities //doi.org/10.1186/s40066-018-0214-0, visalatchi.irudhayanathan @ springernature.com by high temporal and spatial variability [ 14 ] kaija income. In household well-being in Nepal of non-farm activities and benefit most to August is characterized by high temporal spatial! Agricultural policies rural development goals the household members are productive labour force complex, and. Agricultural inputs and its recommended application practices are an indispensable part of improving agricultural production and.. There is no problem of association among the eleven discrete explanatory variables improve livelihood security point here that...

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